Saturday, 4 April 2020

Process Selection and Facility Layout

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Process Selection and Facility Layout


Process technology decisions relate to organizing the process flows, choosing an appropriate product-process mix, adapting the process to meet strategic objectives, and evaluating processes.
Each process is a single activity or a group of activities that are linked together in different patterns to produce the final product. Processes need to be categorized to describe the patterns that are formed when they are linked together.
There are many ways in which processes can be categorized. They can be categorized on the basis of their orientation, e.g., market orientation or manufacturing processes; they may also be categorized on the basis of the production methodology or customer involvement.
A typical flexible manufacturing system can completely process the members of one or more part families on a continuing basis without human intervention.
Flexibility in manufacturing is the ability of a manufacturing system to respond at a reasonable cost and at an appropriate speed, to planned and unanticipated changes in external and internal environments.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing, known as CIM, is the phrase used to describe the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together.
The Facility Layout plan institutionalizes the fundamental organizational structure. Facility layout can be categorized into four major types: process layout, product or line layout, fixed layout and group layout.
In process layouts, one of the principles of paramount importance is that centers between which frequent trips or interactions are required should be placed close to one another.
Process Layout is best suited for non-standardized products; where there is a low volume, high variety manufacturing environment; where the market requires frequent change in product design.
A product layout is also called a line layout. In this type of arrangement, the various facilities, such as machine, equipment, work force, etc., are located based on the sequence of operation on parts.
An ideal assembly line would be one where tasks are assigned to different workstations in such a way that the total processing times at each workstation is equal. If every station used up an equal amount of task time, no time would be idle time.
Fixed Position Layout is essential when the products are difficult to move. Need for such type of layouts arises in case of extremely large and heavy products.
The group technology principle suggests that parts which are similar in design or manufacturing operations are grouped into one family, called a part-family. For each part-family, a dedicated cluster of machines (called 'machine cells') are identified.
Notes With increasing pressure on manufacturing flexibility to meet customer needs, there has been a move towards new forms of assembly lines, e.g., mixed model lines.
There are a few other service layouts which are prevalent and some are fast emerging: warehouse layout, retail layout and office layout.
After a layout is chosen and designed and activities are defined and their requirements, developed, the next step is to define the relationships between activities which is called closeness rating.


Assembly Line: Production follows in a predetermined sequence of steps, which are continuous rather than discrete.
Batch Production: Production is in discrete parts that are repeated at regular intervals.
Cell: Self-sufficient unit in which all operations required to make components or complete products can be carried out.
Closeness Rating: Relationships between activities in a layout.
CIM: Complete automation of a manufacturing plant
CRAFT: Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique
Cycle Time: Time period after which completed units come off the assembly line.
Fixed Position Layout: Material remains fixed and tools, machinery and men are brought to the location of the material.
Flexible Manufacturing: Ability of a manufacturing system to respond at a reasonable cost and at an appropriate speed.
Group Layout: Combination of both process and product layout and incorporates the strong points of both of these.
Mixed Layout: Produces several items belonging to the same family.
Office Layout: Based on the interrelationships among employees, flow of work through the various work units, and equipment.
Part Family: Manufacturing operations grouped into one family.
Process Layout: Similar machines or similar operations are located at one place as per the functions
Product Layout: Facilities are located based on the sequence of operation on parts.

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