Monday, 23 March 2020

Industrial Relations

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Industrial Relations




? Industrial relations or labour relations are the outcome of the employment relationship
in an industrial unit. It underscores the importance of compromise and accommodation in
place of conflict and controversy in resolving disputes between labour and management.
? The basic objective of industrial relations is to maintain sound relations between employers
and employees.
? Collective bargaining is the process by which representatives of management and workers
negotiate over wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment.
? The objective of collective bargaining is to agree upon an acceptable contract, voluntarily
through negotiations. Traditionally, collective bargaining between labour and
management has been adversarial. Presently, negotiations are carried out in nonadversarial
way, in an atmosphere of mutual trust and faith. There are five different
approaches to study industrial relations, namely, the psychological approach, the
sociological approach, the human relations approach, Giri's approach and the Gandhian
approach.
? A trade union is a formal association of workers, acting collectively, who seek to protect
and promote their mutual interests through collective action. The main objective of any
trade union is to protect and promote the interests of its members. Unions perform certain
social, political and fraternal functions as well. Industrial conflicts constitute militant and
organised protests against existing terms and conditions of employment. They occur in
several forms such as strikes, lock-outs, gheroas, picketing, boycott, etc.
? Industrial disputes arise due to several causes relating to recognition, retrenchment,
employment conditions, indiscipline, wages and allowances, bonus, ill-treatment, etc.


Closure: In case of closure the employer not only shuts down the place of business but also
suspends all the transactions of his business.
Collective Bargaining: A procedure by which the terms and conditions of employment of
workers are governed by agreements between their bargaining agents and employers.
Employers' Association: It is a formal group of employers set up to defend, represent and advise
affiliated employers.
Industrial Conflict: Organised protest against prevailing industrial conditions raised by a group
or a class of workers.
Industrial Dispute: Any dispute or difference between employers and employers, or between
employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen which is connected with the
employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour
of any person.
Industrial Relations: It generally refers to the collective relations between employers and
employees as a group.
Lock-out: Closing down of an undertaking or the suspension of work or the refusal of an
employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him.
Negotiation: An interpersonal process used by two or more parties whereby both or all modify
their demands to reach an agreement.
Strike: A collective stoppage of work by a group of workers.
Trade Union: "A voluntary organisation of workers formed to promote and protect their interests
by collective action" (V.V. Giri).

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