Tuesday, 14 January 2020

Unit 6: Contemporary Theories

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Unit 6: Contemporary Theories

David C. McClelland offers a different perspective, ‘acquired-needs’ theory, which argues that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experience.

Although such needs tend to be a product of a variety of conditions to which we are exposed, sometimes even a specific event can profoundly influence our desires.

The individual exhibiting this need as the dominant one derives satisfaction from his or her ability to control others.

Actual achievement of desired goals is of secondary importance to the high nPow individual; instead the means by which goals are achieved (the exercise of power) are of primary importance.

McClelland has analyzed various needs in terms of their relationship to managerial effectiveness.

Individuals with a personal-power orientation run into difficulties as managers because they often attempt to use the efforts of others for their own personal benefit.

Intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation.

Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best”.

Goal-setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal that is, determined not to lower or abandon the goal.

   Essentials of Organisation Behaviour/Organisation Behaviour Adam’s Theory of Equity is one of the popular social exchange theories and is perhaps the most rigorously development statement of how individuals evaluate social exchange relationships.

Reinforcement has played a central role in learning.

Most learning experts agree that reinforcement is the single most important principle of learning.


Benevolent: These are people who are comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of his or her comparison other.

Entitled: These are people who are comfortable with an equity ratio greater than their comparison to the other.

Equity Sensitives: These are those people who prefer equity based on the originally formed theory.

Equity Theory: Equity theory proposes that individuals attempt to reduce any inequity they may feel as a result of this exchange relationship.

Extinction: Extinction involves withholding previously available positive consequences associated with a behaviour in order to decrease that behaviour.

Negative Reinforcement: Negative reinforcement involves providing a noxious stimulus so that an individual will engage in the desired behaviour in order to stop the noxious (unpleasant) stimuli.
Positive Reinforcement: Positive reinforcement involves providing a pleasant, rewarding consequence to encourage that behaviour.

Punishment: Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behaviour.

Reinforcement: The attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behaviour by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences.

Victor H Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation: This theory focuses on personal perceptions.

His theory is founded on the basic notions that people desire certain outcomes of behaviour, which may be thought of as rewards or consequences of behaviour.

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